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School Discipline

Research related to the racial disparities in policies and practices related to school discipline.

 

See the Civil Rights Project's Center for Civil Rights Remedies for information on additional school-to-prison pipeline research


Recent School Discipline Research

 

Research Item The Unequal Impact of Suspension on the Opportunity to Learn in CA
In 2016-17, schoolchildren in California lost an estimated 763,690 days of instruction time, a figure based on the combined total of 381,845 in-school suspensions (ISS) and out-of-school suspensions (OSS). This is an updated report on CA suspension practice.
Research Item Lost Instruction: The Disparate Impact of the School Discipline Gap in California
This report is the first to analyze California’s school discipline data as measured by days of missed instruction due to suspension.
Research Item Suspended Education in Massachusetts: Using Days of Lost Instruction Due to Suspension to Evaluate Our Schools
This study uses percentages reported by the state to estimate the total days of missed instruction per 100 students enrolled. The authors argue that this school-level analysis is an ideal indicator for the state’s proposed new accountability system because it gives meaningful information to the public about school climate with regard to how much lost instruction is incurred by students, an area that schools have a great deal of control over.
Research Item The Hidden Cost of California's Harsh School Discipline
The new report calculates the financial consequences of suspending students in each California school district with more than 100 students, and for the state as a whole.
Research Item The High Cost Of Harsh Discipline And Its Disparate Impact
This report carefully and conservatively quantifies the costs of suspension in two highly populated states, Florida and California, and for the nation.
Research Item Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap?
The main body of this report documents gross disparities in the use of out-of-school suspension experienced by students with disabilities and those from historically disadvantaged racial, ethnic, and gender subgroups. The egregious disparities revealed in the pages that follow transform concerns about educational policy that allows frequent disciplinary removal into a profound matter of civil rights and social justice. This implicates the potentially unlawful denial of educational opportunity and resultant disparate impact on students in numerous districts across the country.
Research Item Nation-wide Survey of State Education Agencies’ Online School Disciplinary Data for Students with Disabilities (Summer 2014)
School Disciplinary Data reported by SEAs online.
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